A (very) close up picture of the rose granite through which the young Manzanares runs.
The Iberian "Sistema Central" mountains running more or less West-East until terminating at the perpendicular Iberian system, formed 40 million years earlier when Spain faced in another direction.
Limestone strata found in the Cordillera Iberica near Soria in northeast Spain.
The black lines represent the fold lines, showing how Iberia was squeezed while the plate rotated in its travels.
Elevation model of the central system and it's location on a general map of the Iberian peninsular. Notice how the land is raised higher to the north of the mountain range.
These staples were used to repair a crack in the Church in La Alberca, Salamanca. The crack opened after shock waves from the Lisbon earthquake reached the town. La Alberca is some 330 km distant from Lisbon.